The severe earthquake that struck Nepal on April 25, 2015, claimed almost 9,000 lives, many thousands more were injured, and 600,000 structures in Kathmandu and other nearby towns were either damaged or destroyed. The staggering figure of structural damages forces us to believe that it is not the earthquake that kills but poorly built buildings.
The Supreme Court order of demolition of five buildings in Marad, Kerala has come as hot news in media with the people applauding the order as well as a few condemning them. This has not been the first instance of demolition of buildings for illegal construction in coastal lines against the CRZ regulations. Rainbow restaurant, in the banks of Periyar, Aluva also met a similar fate of demolition for illegal construction on CRZ regulations in 2014. Why were these construct to be taken down and what does the coastal regulation zone mean. It has been a question that plagues us.
Wooden structures are lightweight, energy efficient, versatile and sustainable solutions. In Earthquake prone areas wooden structures have the advantage that the wooden framed building won’t break off easily. They are flexible, economical and more versatile compared to concrete structures. Availability of cheap wood, flexibility, and aesthetics were the major factors that induced people towards wooden structures.But the case is different for cyclone-prone coastal areas. Although the vulnerability of a structure to a cyclone is circumscribed by its siting, the possibility that a cyclone will occur, and the extent to which its edifices can be damaged by it, concrete structures are always preferred than wooden ones. Concrete buildings, although ordinarily more expensive than wood frame structures, are totally worth it in the long term.
Engineers build leaving a wide berth of safe loading capacity to construct, let’s get a brief view on how the same is for steel reinforcement bars. We have talked enormously on safety codes listed in IS 1786:2008, in the manufacture of reinforcement bars. Now, let’s discuss how safe loads are calculated in a construction material like reinforcement bars. The min. yield strength a reinforcement bar should have is easily inferred from the grade of the reinforcement purchased. Grade Fe 415 having a min. yield strength of 415 N/mm2, similarly for grade Fe 500 having min. yield strength of 500 N/mm2 and Fe 550 with min. yield strength of 550 N/mm2, so goes for every steel reinforcement grade.
We have been talking about the pros and cons of steel and concrete as a construction material. Let’s get a better understanding on why they work better together. Anyone reading about construction materials would have come across the saying – Concrete is good against compression, but weak in tension whereas steel bars are good in tension, but weak in compression. What a few had inferred from the statement is that, steel is naturally weak in the face of compressive forces, which is not the case. Steel is good in both compression and tension. Steel bars or steel reinforcement bars are weak in the face of compressive force due to their dimensional property. Steel reinforcement bars have an insignificant cross sectional area when compared to the length of the steel bars, and thus the ability to withstand compressive forces are naturally less.
The construction of a commercial or residential building cannot be imagined without the use of concrete and steel. These two components are the most essential composite in the construction field. The reasons why they are preferred is their advantages in terms of strength and withstanding the loads. However, what if a comparison was made between concrete and steel. To see which one tops the other in terms of certain parameters.
So, which material surpasses the other in the field of construction – concrete or steel?. We know that both are important for constructing a structure but let us find out what these two materials are capable of.
Steel is an indispensable part of construction. The possibilities presented by steel in the field of construction is not just limited to steel sections, but also as steel bars as reinforcement to cement concrete in construction of structures. The story of steel as a reinforcement presents a picture of innovation in the field of construction. Starting as iron as reinforcement to structures, to highly ductile mild steel to deformed bars (High yield strength deformed bars) and finally to thermo mechanically treated (TMT) steel bars, showcase an evolution of steel reinforcements to keep up with the needs presented by humans in the field of construction.
Corruption in both public and private undertakings is not an unusual or uncommon scenario for a resident in a country like India. The dangers of corruption for unlawful gains have lead to disaster, of which collapse ——– was discussed in —- blog. But ever wonder why not every structure or construct you have known where corruption has eaten up quality is still functioning as its supposed to. It’s not just God’s grace, but a large part of its credit goes to the Engineer who made the plans and necessary load calculations for the construct. So why do they make such calculations. On planning structures, an engineer has to calculate structural load which comprises of both dead loads and live loads acting on it, and also the environment loads and much more. This is so especially in cases of bridges and structures where live loads are more prominent. In this blog we will be discussing more on how loads are calculated for buildings.
The construction of buildings is quite innovating and are truly a marvel. When we compare the current timeline with the ancient timeline, we can see that the number of buildings has risen tremendously over the centuries. With time, different types of innovations in constructions were introduced. This resulted in the construction of better, stronger and taller buildings that are safe to live in.
Constructing buildings is not an easy task, It requires a lot of resources, technical skills, dedication and commitment. When we talk about the resources, the most vital components for constructing buildings are reinforced steel and concrete. Reinforced steel is primarily known for its excellent strength and ductility which provides the necessary strength to withstand the load of the structure. However, there are several factors that can affect the strength of the steel in such a way that it becomes extremely dangerous to the whole structure, and one such factor is rusting.