More than half a million years ago, humans started building tools and shelter out of animal bones, antler, stone and wood. If we are to find out the history of wooden houses it will take us back to the stone age for sure. During 9000 to 5000 BC, the largest structures in the world were the Neolithic longhouses, a long and narrow timber structure housing 20 to 30 people. Such dwelling was built by first farmers in Europe, Central Europe to be exact in connection with the early Neolithic cultures such as the Linear Pottery culture or Cucuteni culture.
Fine and coarse aggregate are fundamental requirements for construction. Sand is the superior choice of fine aggregate for the preparation of mortar and concrete and it also plays a vital role in the mix design. In developing countries such as India, there’s a greater demand for sand because of the rapid growth of infrastructure. The grading and maximum size of aggregates are critical parameters in any concrete mix as they affect the relative proportions in mix, workability, economy, porosity, and depreciation of concrete.
The severe earthquake that struck Nepal on April 25, 2015, claimed almost 9,000 lives, many thousands more were injured, and 600,000 structures in Kathmandu and other nearby towns were either damaged or destroyed. The staggering figure of structural damages forces us to believe that it is not the earthquake that kills but poorly built buildings.
The Supreme Court order of demolition of five buildings in Marad, Kerala has come as hot news in media with the people applauding the order as well as a few condemning them. This has not been the first instance of demolition of buildings for illegal construction in coastal lines against the CRZ regulations. Rainbow restaurant, in the banks of Periyar, Aluva also met a similar fate of demolition for illegal construction on CRZ regulations in 2014. Why were these construct to be taken down and what does the coastal regulation zone mean. It has been a question that plagues us.
When it comes to bridges or any other man-made structures like buildings, they all have an estimated lifetime after which they start to show signs of wear and tear. However, the signs can be delayed for much longer if the structure is given proper periodic maintenance and the construction of the structure using quality materials.
With the emergence of innovative ways and materials in the construction field, it is currently possible to build structures that are more strong and durable than the ones constructed long before. But even the newly constructed structures are collapsing after or during the construction phase but some of the old ones still stand intact, therefore, this raises a question about the integrity of the structure.
Steel is an indispensable part of construction. The possibilities presented by steel in the field of construction is not just limited to steel sections, but also as steel bars as reinforcement to cement concrete in construction of structures. The story of steel as a reinforcement presents a picture of innovation in the field of construction. Starting as iron as reinforcement to structures, to highly ductile mild steel to deformed bars (High yield strength deformed bars) and finally to thermo mechanically treated (TMT) steel bars, showcase an evolution of steel reinforcements to keep up with the needs presented by humans in the field of construction.
Concrete is the most vital material in the construction of buildings. There is no need for any sort of familiarization for us. It is right around us, buildings, roads, bridges, etc, all these structures are made with concrete. It is impossible to imagine a structure without concrete. The use of concrete has a long way back since ancient times. The arrival of concrete drastically changed the course of architecture in the world.
Building collapsing, explosions, all seems good and spectacular in movies, right? but not so in real life. Part-I of this blog explained about the dangers and consequences involved in collapsing of the building. The blog also described the reasons for various building collapse which were lack of maintenance and inefficient planning and design. Here we solely focus on the inefficiency and practices of the people involved in the construction process with a recent example.
Buildings collapsing is not something enjoyable to view and experience. The impacts created from these disasters create great physical and mental trauma that takes a big toll on our life. It gives us a lot to think about and improve but still, the event continues in different areas all over India. There are many instances where different cases on building collapses have been reported. The sad thing is that the responsible officials never learn or do anything effective even after repeated patterns of the same event.